Who is Jesus? Is Jesus merely a highly evolved man who achieved enlightenment and therefore showed us the way to Christ (as the New Age Movement purports)? Or, is He who He claimed to be…the Messiah and the only Son of God?
“I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him [that is, Christ]: ‘I’m ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don’t accept His claim to be God.’ That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic–on a level with the man who says he is a poached egg–or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God: or else a madman or something worse…. You can shut Him up for a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon; or you can fall at His feet and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come up with any patronising nonsense about His being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to.”C.S. Lewis Mere Christianity
Friends, we cannot make Jesus be anyone other than who He is and has always been: the Son of God (2nd Person of the Trinity). Richard Rohr and other New Age theologians view Jesus as a created being who simply pointed us to a being called the Christ (Gnosticism), and that you gave never been separated from Christ. 🚩 This is not Biblical! Sisters, “Christ” is the Greek translation for the Hebrew term, “Messiah.” It also means “Anointed One.” Jesus is the Messiah, and “Christ” was His title …not a separate being.
A recent Barna study out of Arizona State Christian is that only 37% of “Christian” Pastors have a Biblical worldview (how we define God, Sin, and Salvation). Given this research as well as the increased usage of the Enneagram within numerous churches, it is very evident is that the Church at-large is genuinely anemic regarding God’s Word. Friends, we need to be in the Bible daily! If we aren’t reading God’s Word often, we could be placing any savvy-sounding teaching as Truth…possibly receiving and accepting a “different Jesus,” “a different spirit,” and/or a “different gospel” (2 Corinthians 11). Gals, let’s test all that we hear and read against Scripture and hold on to what is good (1 Thessalonians 5:21). Love you all!
2 Corinthians 11
I wish that you would be patient with me in a little foolishness, but indeed you are being patient with me! 2 For I am jealous for you with godly jealousy, because I promised you in marriage to one husband,[a] to present you as a pure[b] virgin to Christ. 3 But I am afraid that[c] just as the serpent[d] deceived Eve by his treachery,[e] your minds may be led astray[f] from a sincere and pure[g] devotion to Christ. 4 For if someone comes and proclaims[h] another Jesus different from the one we proclaimed,[i] or if you receive a different spirit than the one you received,[j] or a different gospel than the one you accepted,[k] you put up with it well enough![l] 5 For I consider myself not at all inferior to those “super-apostles.”[m] 6 And even if I am unskilled[n] in speaking, yet I am certainly not so in knowledge. Indeed, we have made this plain to you in everything in every way. 7 Or did I commit a sin by humbling myself[o] so that you could be exalted, because I proclaimed[p]the gospel of God to you free of charge? 8 I robbed other churches by receiving support from them so that I could serve you![q]9 When[r] I was with you and was in need, I was not a burden to anyone, for the brothers who came from Macedonia fully supplied my needs.[s] I[t] kept myself from being a burden to you in any way, and will continue to do so. 10 As the truth of Christ is in me, this boasting of mine[u] will not be stopped[v] in the regions of Achaia. 11 Why? Because I do not love you? God knows I do![w] 12 And what I am doing I will continue to do, so that I may eliminate any opportunity for those who want a chance to be regarded as our equals[x] in the things they boast about. 13 For such people are false apostles, deceitful[y] workers, disguising themselves[z] as apostles of Christ. 14 And no wonder, for even Satan disguises himself[aa] as an angel of light. 15 Therefore it is not surprising his servants also disguise themselves[ab] as servants of righteousness, whose end will correspond to their actions.[ac]
Paul’s Sufferings for Christ
16 I say again, let no one think that I am a fool.[ad] But if you do, then at least accept me as a fool, so that I too may boast a little. 17 What I am saying with this boastful confidence[ae] I do not say the way the Lord would.[af] Instead it is, as it were, foolishness. 18 Since many[ag]are boasting according to human standards,[ah] I too will boast. 19 For since you are so wise, you put up with[ai] fools gladly. 20 For you put up with[aj] it if someone makes slaves of you, if someone exploits you, if someone takes advantage of you, if someone behaves arrogantly[ak] toward you, if someone strikes you in the face. 21 (To my disgrace[al] I must say that we were too weak for that!)[am] But whatever anyone else dares to boast about[an](I am speaking foolishly), I also dare to boast about the same thing.[ao] 22 Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they descendants of Abraham? So am I. 23 Are they servants of Christ? (I am talking like I am out of my mind!) I am even more so: with much greater labors, with far more imprisonments, with more severe beatings, facing death many times. 24 Five times I received from the Jews forty lashes less one.[ap] 25 Three times I was beaten with a rod.[aq] Once I received a stoning.[ar] Three times I suffered shipwreck. A night and a day I spent adrift in the open sea. 26 I have been on journeys many times, in dangers from rivers, in dangers from robbers,[as] in dangers from my own countrymen, in dangers from Gentiles, in dangers in the city, in dangers in the wilderness,[at] in dangers at sea, in dangers from false brothers, 27 in hard work and toil,[au] through many sleepless nights, in hunger and thirst, many times without food, in cold and without enough clothing.[av] 28 Apart from other things,[aw]there is the daily pressure on me of my anxious concern[ax] for all the churches. 29 Who is weak, and I am not weak? Who is led into sin,[ay] and I do not burn with indignation? 30 If I must boast,[az] I will boast about the things that show my weakness.[ba] 31 The God and Father of the Lord Jesus, who is blessed forever, knows I am not lying. 32 In Damascus, the governor[bb] under King Aretas was guarding the city of Damascus[bc] in order to arrest[bd] me, 33 but I was let down in a rope-basket[be] through a window in the city wall, and escaped his hands.
- 2 Corinthians 11:2 tn That is, to Christ.
- 2 Corinthians 11:2 tn Or “chaste.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:3 tn Grk “I fear lest somehow.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:3 tn Or “the snake.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:3 tn Or “craftiness.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:3 tn Or “corrupted,” “seduced.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:3 tc Although most mss (א2H Ψ 0121 0243 1739 1881 M) lack “and pure” (καὶ τῆς ἁγνότητος, kai tēs hagnotētos; Grk “and purity”) several significant and early witnesses (P46 א* B D F G 33 81 104 ar r co) retain these words. Their presence in such mss across such a wide geographical distribution argues for their authenticity. The omission from the majority of mss can be explained by haplography, since the -τητος ending of ἁγνότητος is identical to the ending of ἁπλότητος (haplotētos, “sincerity”) three words back (ἁπλότητος καὶ τῆς ἁγνότητος); further, since the meanings of “sincerity” and “purity” are similar they might seem redundant. A copyist would scarcely notice the omission because Paul’s statement still makes sense without “and from purity.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:4 tn Or “preaches.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:4 tn Grk “another Jesus whom we have not proclaimed.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:4 tn Grk “a different spirit which you did not receive.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:4 tn Grk “a different gospel which you did not accept.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:4 tn Or “you endure it very well.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:5 tn The implicit irony in Paul’s remark is brought out well by the TEV “I do not think that I am the least bit inferior to those very special so-called ‘apostles’ of yours!”sn The ‘super-apostles’ refers either (1) to the original apostles (the older interpretation) or (2) more probably, to Paul’s opponents in Corinth, in which case the designation is ironic.
- 2 Corinthians 11:6 sn Unskilled in speakingmeans not professionally trained as a rhetorician.
- 2 Corinthians 11:7 sn Paul is referring to humbling himself to the point of doing manual labor to support himself.
- 2 Corinthians 11:7 tn Or “preached.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:8 sn That is, serve them free of charge (cf. the end of v. 7).
- 2 Corinthians 11:9 tn Grk “you, and when.” A new sentence was started here in the translation.
- 2 Corinthians 11:9 tn If the participle ἐλθόντες (elthontes) is taken as temporal rather than adjectival, the translation would be, “for the brothers, when they came from Macedonia, fully supplied my needs” (similar to NASB).
- 2 Corinthians 11:9 tn Grk “needs, and I kept.” A new sentence was started here in the translation.
- 2 Corinthians 11:10 tn That is, that Paul offers the gospel free of charge to the Corinthians (see 2 Cor 11:7).
- 2 Corinthians 11:10 tn Or “silenced.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:11 tn Grk “God knows!” The words “I do” are supplied for clarity. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- 2 Corinthians 11:12 tn Grk “an opportunity, so that they may be found just like us.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:13 tn Or “dishonest.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:13 tn Or “workers, masquerading.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:14 tn Or “Satan himself masquerades.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:15 tn Or “also masquerade.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:15 tn Or “their works.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:16 tn Or “am foolish.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:17 tn Grk “with this confidence of boasting.” The genitive καυχήσεως (kauchēseōs) has been translated as an attributive genitive (the noun in the genitive functions as an adjective of the noun modified).
- 2 Corinthians 11:17 tn Or “say with the Lord’s authority.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:18 sn Many is a reference to Paul’s opponents.
- 2 Corinthians 11:18 tn Grk “according to the flesh.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:19 tn Or “you tolerate.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:20 tn Or “you tolerate.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:20 tn See L&N 88.212.
- 2 Corinthians 11:21 tn Or “my shame.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:21 sn It seems best, in context, to see the statement we were too weak for that as a parenthetical and ironic comment by Paul on his physical condition (weakness or sickness) while he was with the Corinthians (cf. 2 Cor 12:7-10; Gal 4:15).
- 2 Corinthians 11:21 tn The words “to boast about” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, and this phrase serves as the direct object of the preceding verb.
- 2 Corinthians 11:21 tn Grk “I also dare”; the words “to boast about the same thing” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, and this phrase serves as the direct object of the preceding verb.
- 2 Corinthians 11:24 tn Grk “forty less one”; this was a standard sentence. “Lashes” is supplied to clarify for the modern reader what is meant.
- 2 Corinthians 11:25 sn Beaten with a rodrefers to the Roman punishment of admonitio according to BDAG 902 s.v. ῥαβδίζω. Acts 16:22 describes one of these occasions in Philippi; in this case it was administered by the city magistrates, who had wide powers in a military colony.
- 2 Corinthians 11:25 sn Received a stoning. See Acts 14:19, where this incident is described.
- 2 Corinthians 11:26 tn Or “bandits.” The word normally refers more to highwaymen (“robbers”) but can also refer to insurrectionists or revolutionaries (“bandits”).
- 2 Corinthians 11:26 tn Or “desert.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:27 tn The two different words for labor are translated “in hard work and toil” by L&N 42.48.
- 2 Corinthians 11:27 tn Grk “in cold and nakedness.” Paul does not mean complete nakedness, however, which would have been repugnant to a Jew; he refers instead to the lack of sufficient clothing, especially in cold weather. A related word is used to 1 Cor 4:11, also in combination with experiencing hunger and thirst.
- 2 Corinthians 11:28 sn Apart from other things. Paul refers here either (1) to the external sufferings just mentioned, or (2) he refers to other things he has left unmentioned.
- 2 Corinthians 11:28 tn “Anxious concern,” so translated in L&N 25.224.
- 2 Corinthians 11:29 tn Or “who is caused to stumble.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:30 tn Grk “If boasting is necessary.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:30 tn Or “about the things related to my weakness.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:32 tn Grk “ethnarch.”snThe governor was an official called an “ethnarch” who was appointed to rule on behalf of a king over a certain region.
- 2 Corinthians 11:32 tn Grk “the city of the Damascenes.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:32 tn Or “to seize,” “to catch.”
- 2 Corinthians 11:33 tn In Acts 9:25 the same basket used in Paul’s escape is called a σπυρίς (spuris), a basket larger than a κόφινος (kophinos). It was very likely made out of rope, so the translation “rope-basket” is used.
Now[a] as Jesus was going out of the temple courts and walking away, his disciples came to show him the temple buildings.[b]2 And he said to them,[c] “Do you see all these things? I tell you the truth,[d] not one stone will be left on another.[e] All will be torn down!”[f]
Signs of the End of the Age
3 As[g] he was sitting on the Mount of Olives, his disciples came to him privately and said, “Tell us, when will these things[h] happen? And what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?” 4 Jesus answered them,[i]“Watch out[j] that no one misleads you. 5 For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’[k] and they will mislead many. 6 You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. Make sure that you are not alarmed, for this must happen, but the end is still to come.[l] 7 For nation will rise up in arms[m] against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. And there will be famines and earthquakes[n] in various places.[o] 8 All[p] these things are the beginning of birth pains.
Persecution of Disciples
9 “Then they will hand you over to be persecuted and will kill you. You will be hated by all the nations[q] because of my name.[r]10 Then many will be led into sin,[s] and they will betray one another and hate one another. 11 And many false prophets will appear and deceive[t] many, 12 and because lawlessness will increase so much, the love of many will grow cold. 13 But the person who endures to the end will be saved.[u] 14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole inhabited earth as a testimony to all the nations,[v] and then the end will come.
The Abomination of Desolation
15 “So when you see the abomination of desolation[w]—spoken about by Daniel the prophet—standing in the holy place” (let the reader understand),[x] 16 “then those in Judea must flee[y] to the mountains. 17 The one on the roof[z] must not come down[aa] to take anything out of his house, 18 and the one in the field must not turn back to get his cloak. 19 Woe[ab] to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! 20 Pray[ac] that your flight may not be in winter or on a Sabbath. 21 For then there will be great suffering[ad] unlike anything that has happened[ae] from the beginning of the world until now, or ever will happen. 22 And if those days had not been cut short, no one would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short. 23 Then if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ!’[af] or ‘There he is!’ do not believe him. 24 For false messiahs[ag] and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect. 25 Remember,[ah] I have told you ahead of time. 26 So then, if someone[ai] says to you, ‘Look, he is in the wilderness,’[aj] do not go out, or ‘Look, he is in the inner rooms,’ do not believe him. 27 For just like the lightning[ak] comes from the east and flashes to the west, so the coming of the Son of Man will be. 28 Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures[al] will gather.[am]
The Arrival of the Son of Man
29 “Immediately[an] after the suffering[ao] of those days, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven will be shaken.[ap] 30 Then[aq] the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven,[ar] and[as] all the tribes of the earth will mourn. They[at] will see the Son of Man arriving on the clouds of heaven[au] with power and great glory. 31 And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet blast, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven[av] to the other.
The Parable of the Fig Tree
32 “Learn[aw] this parable from the fig tree: Whenever its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near. 33 So also you, when you see all these things, know[ax] that he is near, right at the door. 34 I tell you the truth,[ay] this generation[az] will not pass away until all these things take place. 35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.[ba]
36 “But as for that day and hour no one knows it—not even the angels in heaven[bb]—except the Father alone. 37 For just like the days of Noah[bc] were, so the coming of the Son of Man will be. 38 For in those days before the flood, people[bd] were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day Noah entered the ark. 39 And they knew nothing until the flood came and took them all away.[be] It will be the same at the coming of the Son of Man.[bf] 40 Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one left.[bg] 41 There will be two women grinding grain with a mill;[bh] one will be taken and one left.
42 “Therefore stay alert, because you do not know on what day[bi] your Lord will come. 43 But understand this: If the owner of the house had known at what time of night the thief[bj] was coming, he would have been alert and would not have let his house be broken into. 44 Therefore you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him.[bk]
The Faithful and Wise Slave
45 “Who then is the faithful and wise slave,[bl]whom the master has put in charge of his household, to give the other slaves[bm] their food at the proper time? 46 Blessed is that slave whom the master finds at work[bn] when he comes. 47 I tell you the truth,[bo] the master[bp] will put him in charge of all his possessions. 48 But if[bq] that evil slave should say to himself,[br] ‘My master is staying away a long time,’ 49 and he begins to beat his fellow slaves and to eat and drink with drunkards, 50 then the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not foresee, 51 and will cut him in two,[bs] and assign him a place with the hypocrites, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
- Matthew 24:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Matthew 24:1 sn The Jerusalem templewas widely admired around the world. See Josephus, Ant. 15.11 [15.380-425]; J. W. 5.5 [5.184-227] and Tacitus, History 5.8, who called it “immensely opulent.” Josephus compared it to a beautiful snowcapped mountain.
- Matthew 24:2 tn Grk “answering, he said to them.” The participle ἀποκριθείς(apokritheis) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:2 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
- Matthew 24:2 sn With the statement not one stone will be left on another Jesus predicted the total destruction of the temple, something that did occur in a.d. 70.
- Matthew 24:2 tn Grk “not one stone will be left here on a stone which will not be thrown down.”
- Matthew 24:3 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:3 sn Because the phrase these things is plural, more than the temple’s destruction is in view. The question may presuppose that such a catastrophe signals the end.
- Matthew 24:4 tn Grk “answering, Jesus said to them.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.
- Matthew 24:4 tn Or “Be on guard.”
- Matthew 24:5 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
- Matthew 24:6 tn Grk “it is not yet the end.”
- Matthew 24:7 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.
- Matthew 24:7 tc Most witnesses (C Γ Δ Θ0102 ƒ1,13 700 1241 1424 M) have “and plagues” (καὶ λοιμοί, kai loimoi) between “famines” (λιμοί, limoi) and “earthquakes” (σεισμοί, seismoi), while others have “plagues and famines and earthquakes” (L W 33 lat). The similarities between λιμοίand λοιμοί could explain how καὶ λοιμοίmight have accidentally dropped out, but since the Lukan parallel (Luke 21:11) has both terms (and W lat have the order λοιμοὶ καὶ λιμοί there too, as they do in Matthew), it seems more likely that scribes added the phrase here. The shorter reading does not enjoy overwhelming support ([א] B D 892 sa, and other Greek and versional witnesses), but it is nevertheless significant; coupled with the internal evidence it should be given preference.
- Matthew 24:7 sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4.
- Matthew 24:8 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:9 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “nations” or “Gentiles”).
- Matthew 24:9 sn See Matt 5:10-12; 1 Cor 1:25-31.
- Matthew 24:10 tn Or “many will fall away.” This could also refer to apostasy.
- Matthew 24:11 tn Or “and lead many astray.”
- Matthew 24:13 sn But the person who endures to the end will be saved. Jesus was not claiming here that salvation is by works. He was simply arguing that genuine faith evidences itself in persistence through even the worst of trials.
- Matthew 24:14 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “nations” or “Gentiles”).
- Matthew 24:15 sn The reference to the abomination of desolation is an allusion to Dan 9:27. Though some have seen the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy in the actions of Antiochus IV (or a representative of his) in 167 b.c., the words of Jesus seem to indicate that Antiochus was not the final fulfillment, but that there was (from Jesus’ perspective) still another fulfillment yet to come. Some argue that this was realized in a.d. 70, while others claim that it refers specifically to Antichrist and will not be fully realized until the period of the great tribulation at the end of the age (cf. Mark 13:14, 19, 24; Rev 3:10).
- Matthew 24:15 sn This parenthetical comment is generally regarded as a command by the author made directly to the readers, not as part of Jesus’ original speech. For this reason the statement is not placed within quotation marks.
- Matthew 24:16 sn Fleeing to the mountainsis a key OT image: Gen 19:17; Judg 6:2; Isa 15:5; Jer 16:16; Zech 14:5.
- Matthew 24:17 sn On the roof. Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.
- Matthew 24:17 sn The swiftness and devastation of the judgment will require a swift escape. There will be no time to come down from the roof and pick up anything from inside one’s home.
- Matthew 24:19 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:20 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:21 tn Traditionally, “great tribulation.”
- Matthew 24:21 sn Suffering unlike anything that has happened. Some refer this event to the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. While the events of a.d. 70 may reflect somewhat the comments Jesus makes here, the reference to the scope and severity of this judgment strongly suggest that much more is in view. Most likely Jesus is referring to the great end-time judgment on Jerusalem in the great tribulation.
- Matthew 24:23 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
- Matthew 24:24 tn Or “false christs”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
- Matthew 24:25 tn Or “Pay attention!” Grk“Behold.”
- Matthew 24:26 tn Grk “they say.” The third person plural is used here as an indefinite and translated “someone” (ExSyn 402).
- Matthew 24:26 tn Or “in the desert.”
- Matthew 24:27 sn The Son of Man’s coming in power will be sudden and obvious like lightning. No one will need to point it out.
- Matthew 24:28 tn The same Greek term can refer to “eagles” or “vultures” (L&N 4.42; BDAG 22 s.v. ἀετός), but in this context it must mean vultures because the gruesome image is one of dead bodies being consumed by scavengers.sn Jesus’ answer is that when the judgment comes, the scenes of death will be obvious and so will the location of the judgment. See also Luke 17:37.
- Matthew 24:28 tn Grk “will be gathered.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in English.
- Matthew 24:29 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:29 tn Traditionally, “tribulation.”
- Matthew 24:29 sn An allusion to Isa 13:10; 34:4 (LXX); Joel 2:10. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.
- Matthew 24:30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:30 tn Or “in the sky”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.
- Matthew 24:30 tn Here τότε (tote, “then”) has not been translated to avoid redundancy in English.
- Matthew 24:30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:30 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full authority to judge.
- Matthew 24:31 tn Or “of the sky”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.
- Matthew 24:32 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 24:33 tn The verb γινώσκετε(ginōskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event.
- Matthew 24:34 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
- Matthew 24:34 sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generationmeans. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generationmight mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (v. 30), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession.
- Matthew 24:35 sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself. For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.
- Matthew 24:36 tc ‡ Some significant witnesses, including early Alexandrian and Western mss (א*,2b B D Θ ƒ13 it vgmss IrlatHiermss), have the additional words οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός (oude ho huios, “nor the Son”) here (so NA28). Although the shorter reading (which lacks this phrase) is suspect in that it seems to soften the prophetic ignorance of Jesus, the final phrase (“except the Father alone”) already implies this. Further, the parallel in Mark 13:32 has οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός, with almost no witnesses lacking the expression; significantly, Mark does not add “alone” to the Father. It is thus doubtful that the absence of “nor the Son” is due to pious scribal motives. In keeping with Matthew’s general softening of Mark’s harsh statements throughout his Gospel, it is more likely that the absence of “nor the Son” is part of the autographic text of Matthew, being an intentional change on the part of the author. Further, this shorter reading is supported by א2a as well as L W ΓΔ ƒ1 33 565 579 700 1241 1424 M al vg sy co Hiermss. Although the external evidence is not as impressive for the shorter reading, it best explains the rise of the other reading (in particular, how does one account for virtually no mss excising οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός at Mark 13:32 if such an absence here is due to scribal alteration? Although copyists were hardly consistent, for such a theologically significant issue at least some consistency would be expected on the part of a few scribes). Further, although some have claimed that the doubled οὐδέ is “necessary on internal grounds” (Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: The Effect of Early Christological Controversies on the Text of the New Testament [New York: OUP, 1993], 92; see also Daniel J. Harrington, The Gospel of Matthew, SP 1 [Collegeville, MN: Liturgical, 1991], 342: “…the syntax of the sentence (‘neither the angels … but the Father alone’) demands it.”), this is hardly the case. Indeed, apart from one quotation from the LXX, Matthew never elsewhere uses the correlative οὐδέ construction. Thus, on a redactional, intrinsic, and source-critical basis, the shorter reading is to be strongly preferred. See D. B. Wallace, “The Son’s Ignorance in Matthew 24:36: An Exercise in Textual and Redaction Criticism,” Studies on the Text of the New Testament and Early Christianity: Essays in Honour of Michael W. Holmes, ed. Daniel Gurtner, Paul Foster, and Juan Hernández (Leiden: Brill) 182–209.
- Matthew 24:37 sn Like the days of Noah, the time of the flood in Gen 6:5-8:22, the judgment will come as a surprise as people live their day to day lives.
- Matthew 24:38 tn Grk “they,” but in an indefinite sense, “people.”
- Matthew 24:39 sn Like the flood that came and took them all away, the coming judgment associated with the Son of Man will condemn many.
- Matthew 24:39 tn Grk “So also will be the coming of the Son of Man.”
- Matthew 24:40 sn There is debate among commentators and scholars over the phrase one will be taken and one left about whether one is taken for judgment or for salvation. If the imagery is patterned after the rescue of Noah from the flood, as some suggest, the ones taken are the saved (as Noah was) and those left behind are judged. The imagery, however, is not directly tied to the identification of the two groups. Its primary purpose in context is to picture the sudden, surprising separation of the righteous and the judged (i.e., condemned) at the return of the Son of Man.
- Matthew 24:41 tn According to L&N 46.16, this refers to a hand mill normally operated by two women.
- Matthew 24:42 tc Most later mss (L 0281 565 579 700 1241 M lat) have here ὥρᾳ(hōra, “hour”) instead of ἡμέρα (hēmera, “day”). Although the merits of this reading could be argued either way, in light of the overwhelming and diverse early support for ἡμέρᾳ (א B C D W Δ Θ ƒ13 33 892 1424, as well as several versions and fathers), the more general term is surely correct.
- Matthew 24:43 sn On Jesus’ return pictured as a thief, see 1 Thess 5:2, 4; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 3:3; 16:15.
- Matthew 24:44 sn Jesus made clear that his coming could not be timed, and suggested it would take some time—so long, in fact, that some will not be looking for him any longer (at an hour when you do not expect him).
- Matthew 24:45 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.
- Matthew 24:45 tn Grk “give them.”
- Matthew 24:46 tn That is, doing his job, doing what he is supposed to be doing.
- Matthew 24:47 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
- Matthew 24:47 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the master) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Matthew 24:48 tn In the Greek text this is a third class condition that for all practical purposes is a hypothetical condition (note the translation of the following verb “should say”).
- Matthew 24:48 tn Grk “should say in his heart.”
- Matthew 24:51 tn The verb διχοτομέω(dichotomeō) means to cut an object into two parts (L&N 19.19). This is an extremely severe punishment compared to the other two later punishments. To translate it simply as “punish” is too mild. If taken literally this servant is dismembered, although it is possible to view the stated punishment as hyperbole (L&N 38.12).